Instructional Frameworks to create effective content

As teachers, we mostly use readily available content available in the form of textbooks, reference books, online resources etc. But many a time we also create content ourselves for our students. This process is called content creation where information is created for an end-user/audience in specific contexts.

Creating content is not as simple as it sounds. There are a lot of processes involved in creating content for our audience/learners. Therefore, the use of an effective, research-based instructional model to create content can help students learn fundamental concepts in a more effective and sequential manner. Let us look at 3 frameworks that can be used.


This acronym stands for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate.  

Originally ADDIE model was a linear model i.e. once you complete the first stage then you move onto the next one. The first step is to analyze various parameters like learning outcomes, my audience etc, moving to designing the outline and visualizing how the end product will look. Followed by the main component – developing the elements and finally implementing the artefact and evaluation post-implementation via feedback and sense check.

However, a commonly used adaption is to use the model in a dynamic, iterative way; receiving continual feedback while materials are being developed.

While ADDIE is a proven method for designing clear and effective training programs, its implications extend beyond learning products and can be implemented in business and marketing strategies.

Merrill’s Principles of Instruction

In a nutshell, Merrill’s principles highlight that learning is promoted when:

Learners are engaged in solving a real-world problem.

  • Existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge.
  • New knowledge is demonstrated to the learner.
  • New knowledge is applied by the learner.
  • New knowledge is integrated into the learner’s world.

This model can be applied to your lesson plans, instructional design, teacher training and other training.

5E Model

The acronym stands for Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. 

The 5E Model is most effective when students are encountering new concepts for the very first time because there is an opportunity for a complete learning cycle. The model is sequential in nature, it starts with engaging learners with a concept by activating their pre-existing knowledge. Followed by this learners are probed with questions that promote exploration related to the concept. Once the teacher provides an explanation, the concept is elaborated using real-life examples and anomalies leading to a final evaluation of understanding of the content.

This model is most useful when used to plan a unit, however can even be applied to daily lessons or larger structuring and sequencing of topics.

Please go to the next page to answer two short questions on this resource. Thank you.

Close Bitnami banner